|March 1095||Byzantium delegation asks for Urban’s help against the Turks|
|November 1095||Pope Urban II preaches the First Crusade|
|Spring 1096||People’s Crusade leaves; 3 armies don’t make it past Hungary|
|August 1st 1096||Peter the Hermit and Walter Sansavoir reach Constantinople|
|August 15th 1096||Official start of First Crusade as set by Pope Urban II|
|October 6th 1096||Armies under Peter and Walter destroyed at Nicaea by Kilij Arslan|
|Autumn 1096||Leaders (and armies) of the official First Crusade arrive at staggered times at Constantinople. Alexius I Comnenus asks for and receives oaths of fealty and promises to return lands formerly under Byzantine control|
|April 1097||Crusaders cross the Bosphorus|
|June 19th 1097||Nicaea surrenders|
|June 16th – 28th 1097||Crusaders head into Asia Minor|
|July 1st 1097||Turks under Kilij Arslan unsuccessfully attack the crusaders at Dorlyaeum|
|October 21st 1097||Crusaders reach Antioch|
|February 6th 1098||Baldwin reaches Edessa whose prince is Thoros|
|March 10th 1098||Baldwin takes control of Edessa. Start of the first Latin settlement in the East|
|June 5th 1098||Muslim army under Kerbogha arrives and besieges the crusaders in Antioch|
|June 14th 1098||Crusaders believe they have found the Holy Lance|
|June 28th 1098||Crusaders attack besiegers and win; they then decide to wait out the summer before continuing|
|August 1st 1098||Adhémar of Le Puy dies, exacerbating crusaders’ leadership problems|
|July 15th 1099||Crusaders seize and sack Jerusalem|
|July 19th 1099||Pope Urban II dies, never hearing news of capture of Jerusalem|
|July 22nd 1099||Godfrey elected ruler of settlement at Jerusalem|
Normans are perhaps most noted for their castles. As we discussed last week, these are typically of a motte-and-bailey style. Those wishing to follow this subject up may also wish to take a look at:
– Motte-and-bailey castle (Wikipedia)
– Motte and Bailey Castle (Durham World Heritage Site)
– Interactive Map of Castles in England (Historic UK)
– Norman Castles in Northern Ireland (Department of the Environment)
– The Castle in the Lordship of Ireland 1177 – 1310 (The Irish Story)
Lyminge, Kent, is a picturesque village which has long been known as a site of an Anglo-Saxon royal monastery. Archaeological research now demonstrates that Lyminge is one of the best preserved monastic sites in Kent, a region where Christianity first gained a foothold in Anglo-Saxon England.
Excavations started in 2008 and are taking place on Tayne Field at the very centre of the village. This film caught up with the team in 2014 – during the final year of excavations. The film offers a chance to see the foundations of a sequence of spectacular Anglo-Saxon feasting halls and dwellings that the team has discovered.
In this film Dr Gabor Thomas also takes us through some of the beautiful artefacts and very rare fragments of early Angle Saxon glass that have been discovered and he tells us about the significance of these items to our understanding of the site. He also guides us through an extensive public engagement programme which really sets this archaeology project apart.
There are already a number of resources on this blog which may be of interest to those of you on the Anglo-Saxons course. Just click on the word Saxon in the left hand menu and you will bring up all those entries that have been tagged as being related to the Anglo-Saxons. These include several video clips which you may wish to watch, as well as links to additional information on topics we cover during the course.
In our last session of The Norman World we briefly looked at the Welsh Marches. As we can see from the Wikipedia entry on the subject: ‘the English terms “Welsh March” and “the March of Wales” (in Medieval Latin Marchia Walliae) were originally used in the Middle Ages to denote a more precisely defined territory, the marches between England and the Principality of Wales, in which Marcher lords had specific rights, exercised to some extent independently of the king of England.’
The question arose of what, exactly, was a ‘march’. Again, I quote, : ‘the word “march” derives ultimately from a Proto-Indo-European root *mereg-, meaning “edge, boundary”. The root *mereg- produced Latin margo (“margin”), Old Irish mruig (“borderland”), and Persian and Armenian marz (“borderland”). The Proto-Germanic *marko gave rise to the Old English word mearc and Frankish marka, as well as Old Norse mörk meaning “borderland, forest”, and derived form merki “boundary, sign”, denoting a borderland between two centres of power.’
A march was, therefore, a medieval European term for any kind of borderland, as opposed to a notional “heartland”.
There are already a number of resources on this blog which may be of interest to those of you on the Norman World course. Just click on the word Normans in the left hand menu and you will bring up all those entries that have been tagged as being related to the Normans. These include several video clips which you may wish to watch, as well as links to additional information on topics we cover during the course.
29 October 2015 – 7 February 2016
Adults £10, under 16s free
Discover Egypt’s incredible journey over 12 centuries, as Jews, Christians and Muslims transformed this ancient land. It is a story charting the change from a world of many gods to the worship of one God.
The exhibition begins in 30 BC, when Egypt became a province of the Roman Empire after the death of Cleopatra and Mark Antony, and continues until AD 1171 when the rule of the Islamic Fatimid dynasty came to an end. The remarkable objects in the exhibition have been uniquely preserved in Egypt’s arid climate, and many have never been on display before. Their survival provides unparalleled access to the lives of individuals and communities, and they tell a rich and complex story of influences, long periods of peaceful coexistence, and intermittent tension and violence between Jews, Christians and Muslims.
The state’s use of religion to assert power is shown by fabulous sculptures that mix ancient Egyptian and Roman imperial iconography, and letters on papyrus concerning the treatment of Jews and early Christians. Gravestones and architectural elements demonstrate the reuse and reworking of sacred spaces – temple complexes were reused as churches and, later, mosques.
The changes in people’s private lives are shown through everyday objects – delicate fragments of papyrus preserve some of the earliest surviving Jewish scriptures and lost Christian gospels. Colourful garments and accessories show what people wore, and soft-furnishings show how they dressed their homes.
Together, the objects in the exhibition show how the shift from the traditional worship of many gods to monotheism – the belief in one God – affected every part of life. Egypt’s journey from Roman to Islamic control reflects the wider transformation from the ancient to medieval world, a transition that has shaped the world we live in today.
More information and online booking can be found at the British Museum website.
On the last Sunday of every month the Magazine Gateway, Leicester Castle and Wygston’s House are open to the public, with visitors invited to explore the buildings on their own or book onto a guided tour with one of the Blue Badge guides.
Heritage Sundays provide a wonderful opportunity to discover some of Leicester’s historical treasures right in the heart of the city, including two buildings that are normally closed to the public.
Tours are not suitable for small children and suitable footwear must be worn. General admission to the sites is free. Pre-booking of tours is essential, contact the Visit Leicester centre, Gallowtree Gate on 0116 299 4444 or online via www.goleicestershire.com
Each Tour lasts one hour at a cost of £2.50 per tour or you can book for all three buildings on the same day for the discounted price of £6.
The Magazine, Oxford Street, Leicester: 11am
Wygston House, 12 Applegate, Leicester LE1 5LD: 1pm
Leicester Castle, Castle Yard LE1 5WH: 2.30pm
The East Midlands branch of the Council for British Archaeology are holding a one day conference on the topic of ‘The East Midlands in the Middle Ages’ on Sunday 15th November at Kibworth Grammar School in Leicestershire. Michael Wood will be the keynote speaker, talking about his Story of England project that brought Kibworth to the nation’s TV screens. In addition, there will also be speakers about other aspects of medieval archaeology in the East Midlands region including: medieval buildings in Nottinghamshire; recent excavations at the chapel of St Morrell, Hallaton; Grey Friars in Leicester and Richard III’s diet.
Tickets cost £12 for members of the CBA East Midlands and £17 for non-members with a buffet lunch at £6 per head.
Any enquiries should be addressed to David Ingham on email@example.com
University scientists present their research at public event from 30 June – 5 July 2015
The team behind the scientific detective story of the decade, the discovery of King Richard III, has been selected as one of 22 exhibitors at the Royal Society’s annual display of the most exciting cutting-edge science and technology in the UK.
The exhibit, at the prestigious Royal Society Summer Science Exhibition 2015, will reveal the crack team of scientists, historians, archaeologists and engineers at the University who worked tirelessly to find and identify the king who had been lost for 500 years and will bring together their expertise once more to provide a thorough account of the interdisciplinary research used to identify the remains of King Richard III.
The Richard III stand will also include an incredible 3D-printed replica of King Richard III’s skeleton created by Loughborough University using CT scans undertaken by the University…
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